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M

Magnification

the number of times greater an image is than the actual object


Malnutrition

abnormal nutrition, usually nutritional deficiency but may also mean  excess of nutrition


Mange

skin conditions caused by a variety of mites

Mastication

chewing


Maximum Permissible Dose (MPD)

an amount of radiation exposure whichis considered no more hazardous than that which could be encountered on a day to day basis


Mechanical vector

the organism is only carried by the host and does not undergo any development inside the host


Megakaryocytes

large cells, found in the bone marrow, that break up to form platelets, which are important in the clotting mechanism of blood


Meibomian glands

modified sebaceous glands present in the eyelids which produce an oily secretion, which helps to prevent the eye from drying out. Also called tarsal glands.


Meiosis

cell division involved in ova and sperm production. Four haploid cells are produced, each with half the number of chromosomes than the parent cell.


Melanocyte

cell in the skin that produces and contains the pigment called melanin


Mendel's First Law of Inheritance - the Law of Segregation

at meiosis only one of the two alleles is transmitted to each gamete


Mendel's Second Law of Inheritance - the Law of Independent Assortment

each pair of genes is inherited without being influenced by the presence of other genes


Metabolic acidosis

acidic plasma pH due to a metabolic process. A common example of this is diarrhoea, resulting in acidosis.


Metabolic alkalosis

less acidic plasma pH due to a metabolic process. A common example of this is acute vomiting resulting in a loss of hydrogen ions from the stomach. Chronic vomiting will result in metabolic acidosis due to a loss of bicarbonate from intestinal contents.


Metabolism

the sum of the physical and chemical changes that take place in living organisms. These changes include both synthesis (anabolism) and breakdown (catabolism) of substances in the body.

Micro-organism

an organism too small to be seen by the naked eye; a microscopic organism


Microtubules

protein structures that help cells maintain their shape and are involved in cell movement and cell structure


Micturition

the act of expelling urine from the bladder


Milk teeth

see deciduous teeth


Milliamperes (mA)

combination of the mA and exposure time which dictates the number of X-rays produced during an exposure

Mitochondria

membrane-bound organelle that is the site of aerobic respiration in the cell


Mitosis

the division of the nucleus that results in two diploid cells with exactly the same number and type of chromosomes as the parent cell


Mixed nerve

contains both sensory and motor fibres


Modified transudate

transudate with a high protein and cell content, as in inflammation. Eventually, modified transudate may become exudate


Monocyte

type of agranular white blood cell


Monogastric

stomach with only one compartment


Monosynaptic reflex

a reflex that only involves a single set of synapses


Motor fibres

nerve fibres that carry impulses away from the central nervous system


Multicellular

Organisms that consist of more than one cell


Multiparous

give birth to more than one offspring; litter-bearing


Murmur

abnormal heart sound created by alteration of blood flow through the heart


Mutualistic bacteria

an association between organisms of two different species in which each member benefits


Mycoplasma

prokaryotic organism that does not have a cell wall


Myelin sheath

the insulating, fatty layer, produced by Schwann cells, that surrounds the axon in some nerves


Myelography

diagnostic imaging procedure, whereby contrast agent is injected into the cerebrospinal fluid


Myosin

contractile protein found in muscle fibres



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