Glossary with audio assistance

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specialized germ cell. Either sperm or ovum. Contains the haploid (n) number of chromosomes.

Ganglion (pl.ganglia)

collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system

Gaseous exchange

the movement of gases between an organism and its environment; often takes place across a specialized surface, for example the alveoli of the lungs


Inflammation of the stomach


unit of inheritance. Short units of DNA which codes for a particular protein or polypeptide.

Genetic damage

harmful effects of X-rays which affect the genes of the reproductive cells


the science of inheritance. Physical characteristics and abilities are largely determined by ‘genetic makeup’. In the 1860s, Mendel carried out studies which showed that each organism has physical traits which correspond to invisible elements within the cell.


the genetic make-up of an animal


Elderly; the term is often used when an animal reaches or exceeds 75% of its expected lifespan


the period of development of the young from fertilization to birth

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