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Biological vectors

the organism undergoes part of its lifecycle inside the host

Blood brain barrier

a semipermeable membrane that keeps circulating blood separate from cerebrospinal fluid and the brain

Blood plasma

fluid surrounding the blood cells and transported by the blood-vascular system


a ball of chewed food bound together with saliva that is formed in the mouth by the action of the tongue


having a short, broad skull, e.g. boxers, bulldogs, pugs, Persian cats, lionhead rabbits. These animals tend to have overlong soft palates, excessive soft tissue in their oral cavity and pharynx, smaller tracheal diameters than expected, and narrow nares.


a slower than normal heart rate


a slower than normal respiratory rate



a substance which is able to resist change in the pH of a solution so that the pH remains constant

Buffer solution

a solution which will maintain body pH due to the release or absorption of hydrogen ions to balance any loss or gain. Carbon dioxide only partially dissolves in solution, and this means that it can act as a buffer. If more hydrogen is present then it will be combined with bicarbonate and converted to water and carbon dioxide. Water will be lost through the kidneys and carbon dioxide will be lost in exhaled air. Alternatively, if metabolic alkalosis is present, then carbon dioxide will be combined with water and converted to bicarbonate and hydrogen ions, to maintain the pH.

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